The relationships between stress and brain development has been a focus of PIRI research and led to longitudinal research in high-risk preterm infants (NHMRC 2006-13). An intervention to train parents as therapists for their preterm infant resulted in a landmark publication demonstrating improved infant brain connectivity (visible on MRI scans) following this stress-reduction intervention (Milgrom et al., 2010, Ped Res, 67).